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Frequently Asked Questions:

Can you suggest any tricks owners could use employ to get maximum fuel efficiency while towing heavy loads?

Probably the easiest one is when you think the engine is under sustained load, meaning you know you have much more load on the engine than you normally would (in other words you are probably an inch or so further down on the throttle than normal) , its probably better to change down a gear. When you do so you will notice that, while the engine is revving slightly higher, your foot has also come off the throttle a bit which in turn is definitely reducing engine load.

EGTs - what EGTs are considered safe, board line and dangerously high? And does this differ for newer vehicles?

EGTs have never been discussed or measured properly. A PEAK EGT is the point where the EGT doesn't increase anymore. If we hold the engine under maximum load and revs we will find a peak EGT fairly quikly...maybe a few minutes at that. Just putting the foot down on a hill may not give the peak EGT. EGTs are highest generally at the highest rev to output point when checking. WHat was initially thought of as high, 550'C, is cool compared with some factory turbos running upwards of 650'C to 750'C. Again the longer you run at the highest load/revs of the engine it could be considered that you will be at the more extreme end of its operating condition.

What about heat? Heavy loads creates more heat - what can be done to keep this in check (keep things cool)?

Firstly be sure your engines tune is OK. Not overly tuned. That the cooling system is in good nic. You can upgrade an intercooler to a larger one to help keep EGTS slightly lower.

Does loading a modern diesel right up (by constantly towing maximum weights), affect the motor in any way in terms of longevity and reliability, and if so, how? E.g., will it shorten its life?

Running anything at its maximum must have some effect. IE if we said a TD42T under its maximum power was running at 60% of its actual duty cycle (ability) then we would probably have to say a YD25 (which produces more power than its larger brother) under its maximum power could be running at a higher actual duty cycle (ability) of maybe 80 or 90%. Running the smaller engine at its maximum power will probably mean it last less than its larger brother which by its design era is less stressed and larger in capacity.

Do you see any common problems crop up (engine, fuel system or other) that are directly linked to constantly towing heavy loads?

The Newer engines now have ridiculously long service intervals even though we could say these Smaller capacity engines work much harder. If we looked at the service book of the Older Larger capacity engine we would see a note that if an engine is under arduous conditions we should service it earlier. So if we look at that example....we could conclude that smaller engines working hard should be serviced more frequently when under towing sustained load conditions......

Is there a difference as an owner? E.g., will the smaller engine fail sooner because it's always operating at the top end of its abilities?

Obviously the larger capacity engine is running at far less of its full potential than a smaller engine so the larger capacity doing it easier will most likely last a longer time. That said if a smaller high tech engine is serviced more regularly that these stupid long service intervals the newer smaller capacity engine can still last a long time.

How do manufacturers achieve (or what technology are they using) similar or the same power figures out of a 2.2L engine as they do a 4.2L?

Technology advancements. Getting more air to a Diesel means you can add more Fuel which is where power is made.
Lets compare Nissan PatrolTD42 with a Nissan Pathfinder YD25 engine:
TD42 - 2 valves per cylinder, 10 PSI Waste gate controlled turbo, fuel pressures at around 1.500psi. Mechanically set timing control
YD 25- 4 valves per cylinder 15-20 PSI Variable geometry (variable size) turbo, fuel pressures at around 25,000psi. Electronic timing control.

Why does the advertised STANDARD Power say 147kW yet the vehicle only achieves 105kW at the wheels on a dyno?

ALL ‘Claimed’ manufacturers engine power specifications are measured at the engines crankshaft. Note the Key Word ‘Claimed’. These ‘Claimed’ manufacturers’ specifications are never checked or questioned by any Government authority or Independent group. The engine power specifications listed here by DPCHIP are ‘converted or calculated’ figures and are to be used as a guide to the power gains you will get from installing a DPCHIP. Simply put; to make figures comparative, given that the manufacturer only offers crankshaft power and DPCHIP measure only power at the wheels, DPCHIP have calculated wheel power back to a ‘comparative’ crankshaft power.
Be sure you don’t confuse the figures you see here with what you achieve on a dyno. There are many variables in the way a dyno calculates power and there are further variables such as tyre size and transmission type. Larger diameter tyres not only drastically effect fuel economy but also absorb power. Automatic transmissions make dyno results hard to read as there is no ‘solid’ connection to the wheels like found in a manual transmission.
It is up to your skilled Dyno Tuning Professional to test the vehicle thoroughly and accurately. Don’t settle for 1 or 2 dyno runs as this will not be a fair and accurate result. Most reputable dyno shops will perform multiple dyno runs so as to achieve a reliable repeatable average of runs. This will allow them to sort through and pick out the runs that can be best used to describe the vehicles dyno results. Remember that to the untrained person a dyno graph can be like reading and trying to understand your health check blood results.
Make sure you ask questions and that your dyno operator ‘translates’ your dyno results into information you can understand.

What about injector knock/rattle?

Now that common rail Diesels are getting older we are starting to experience their ‘Achilles Heel’. One problem becoming common to some common rail Diesels, sometimes with very little mileage on the engine, is ‘injector rattle-knock’. What makes it happen is very much up for debate but one thing is for sure, when they knock they really knock loud. The only thing that does appear to be common is the fact that we see this mainly with Japanese branded vehicles. ‘Why?’ makes us wonder but certainly it’s very rare if ever we experience a European or Korean made vehicle with this same issue.
The best theory that I have follows statements made by a major common rail injector manufacturer. This company states it has been able to make 2nd generation technology injectors ‘open and close’ at 3rd generation technology speeds. A comparison model would be to say that you can make an old car horn sound like a digital watch beeper. Well if you could, I guess it would only be a matter of time before that car horn failed. So goes for the ever increasing issues with common rail injectors knocking; those electromagnetic injectors really can’t operate like Piezo electric injectors forever. Another theory is that, simply, ‘early wear and tear’ takes place and the injector just starts to perform poorly making combustion a noisy experience.
Whatever the real reason it is one that once out of warranty can cost the owner thousands of dollars in injector repairs. So best thing you can do is be very vigilant as an owner and while your vehicle is still covered by warranty not take ‘oh that noise is normal sir’ for an answer and demand that it is repaired before it runs out of warranty. If your vehicle is even just out of warranty, consumer law still doesn’t allow the manufacturer to simple ‘run from the issue’. Being ‘demanding and vigilant’ is the key. Finally; ‘What can be done to rectify this forever?’ Probably not much as it seems old and new vehicles suffer from it while others of the same model may not. Just remember to that regular fuel filter changes minimise the chance of contaminated fuel issues so at least keep changing the fuel filter every 10,000km.
A chip can sometimes exacerbate the issue as it places some minor timing advance on the combustion process further exposing an already underlying issue. Luckily DPCHIP is adjustable and can be adjusted around this issue if it is apparent.

What will happen to my fuel consumption?

More power generally means more fuel. With a diesel turbo system, fuel consumption stays generally the same and can become better under towing conditions.

Will my vehicle run ‘cooler’ with an intercooler?

Theoretically, but not always the case! We commonly find Intercooled 4WD vehicles running hot due to over – fuelling and radiator restriction. Restriction meaning that hot air passes out of the Intercooler over the air conditioning condenser and finally the radiator. The poor old radiator is left with scraps of extremely hot air and then is expected to cool the engine. We don’t advise fitting them as hot Australian conditions can often be the catalysts for engine heat problems.

What is an intercooler?

A special type of radiator which cools air before it enters the engine. As a turbo compresses air, the air heats up. Power can be increased if the air entering the engine is cooler. The cooler air is more dense meaning that more fuel can be injected for more power.

How noisy should a turbo be?

Only an unbalanced, worn out or damaged turbo will produce any significant turbo noise.

Do I need to upgrade my exhaust?

Generally not. Our systems are designed to run utilizing as much genuine component as possible. Some systems on the market promote exhaust change as it is required by that particular turbo. Doing so usually picks up more noise than performance.

What is a water – cooled turbo?

The central part of the turbo, housing the bearings, is surrounded by a water jacket through which the engine’s water coolant is passed. This water continues to circulate after the engine is turned off, cooling the turbo and preventing heat soak.

Should a turbo be serviced?

No specific turbo servicing is required, but regular quality engine servicing is needed to reduce the chance of turbo charger problems.

Oil in the turbo inlet pipe – Should I be concerned?

A small amount of oil usually exists, drawn in from the engine’s crankcase breather system. High engine wear will increase the amount of oil found, and will require further engine tests. (not turbo).

Are all actuators the same?

No, each has a different opening pressure and rate.

How many PSI in one bar?

14.7PSI = 1 bar

How much boost does my turbo produce?

Correctly set up diesel 4WD turbo chargers run up to between 10PSI to 12PSI with Intercooler turbo charged engines running upwards of 13PSI.

Why is it important to balance a turbocharger?

Without highly accurate balancing, vibration will create a whining noise, reduce turbo bearing life and reduce turbo efficiency.

What type of oil and how often should it be changed?

Turbos must have good quality oil. Use either a mineral, semi or fully – synthetic engine oil. Berrima Diesel recommends Shell Rimula range or Shell Helix Ultra. Change oil at intervals recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Should I leave my engine ‘ticking over’ before it is turned off?

Not for normal every day driving, but still worthwhile if the engine has been under load or raced before being turned off. e.g. Towing a caravan or after climbing a long incline.

Can I fit a turbo from another 4WD?

No, virtually all turbocharger are different inside, even if they appear similar on the outside. The turbo model e.g. Mitsubishi TDO4, is only the model, not the specification.

What is a ‘dump’ valve or ‘blow-off’ valve?

A valve which relieves boost-pressure between the compressor outlet and engine as the throttle is closed (Only required on throttle valve controlled diesels which are rarely seen these days). These are commonly fitted to hotted up petrol cars so it sounds good changing gears among other reasons!

How long does a turbo last?

On average as long as the engine, or longer with regular engine servicing and good quality engine oil.

What creates the most heat? Fuel or turbo boost?

Diesels do not need an air control (cg. manifold butterfly valve. The only ones requiring a butterfly are vacuum operated governor pumps) to operate. The more air the better. Add too much fuel to the equation and the exhaust gas temperature rises rapidly. What type of oil and how often should it be changed? Turbos must have good quality oil. Use either a mineral, semi or fully-synthetic engine oil. Berrima Diesel recommends Shell Rimula range or Shell Helix Ultra. Change oil at intervals recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

Can I fit a DTS Turbo system myself and, if not, how long and what is the cost of having it fitted for me?

While most competent mechanics could probably fit a DTS Turbo system, tuning requires specialised knowledge. The lack of this knowledge could have serious consequences. In addition, warranty can only be provided on DTS Turbo systems which are installed by authorised facilities. The cost of having the installation performed at Berrima Diesel is only about 10% of the total purchase price. This provides a warranted, correctly tuned, “no hassle” installation for the customer. All diesel vehicle installation can be performed in one day.

How does fitting a DTS Turbo system effect the power of my vehicle?

Modern 4WD diesel engines, typically produce peak torque (pulling power), at around 2,000-2,500 R.P.M. and peak horsepower at around 3,500-4,000 R.P.M. Turbo boost starts at 750 R.P.M. and rises progressively to its maximum pressure of approx. 70 Kpa (10 P.S.I.) by approx. 2,000 R.P.M. At this point, the percentage torque increase of a correctly tuned installation is approx. 40%, at the wheels. This continues to the peak horsepower point of 3,500-4,000 R.P.M. At no point is it ever any less than standard. e.g. at 1500 R.P.M. it is at least 25% greater than the standard vehicle at the same R.P.M.

What is 'Boost'?

Boost is a term used to describe the increase in pressure, provided by the turbocharger, to the volume of air, entering the engine. This pressure is expressed in a number of different units, (BAR, ATM, Kpa, P.S.I.), but they all mean the same thing. For purposes of approximate comparison; 1BAR = 1 ATM = 100Kpa = 14.7 P.S.I. When the pressure of the engine’s inlet air is increased, the engine’s power output is increased. This pressure increase is called ‘Boost’.